Personal Information

Work Address Fibonacci Phyllotaxis
Suite 210
3939 J Street
Sacramento, CA 95819
Telephone (916) 454-6088
Fax (916) 527 2257
Citizenship US


College Queens College, City University of New York, Queens, N.Y.,
B.A., Chemistry-Biology 1966, cum laude
Medical School Downstate Campus, State University of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y.,
M.D., 1970, cum laude
Internship U.S. Public Health Service Hospital, San Francisco, California,
1970-1971, Straight Medicine
Associateship U.S. Public Health Service Hospital, San Francisco, California,
1971-1973, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Research Associate in Cardiology
Residency LAC/USC-MC, Los Angeles, California,
1973-1974, Internal Medicine
Fellowships LAC/USC-MC, Los Angeles, California, 1974-1977, Medical Oncology

USC Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California, 1977-1982,
Research Scholar (Advisor:  Prof. Charles Heidelberger)

Hematology, The Hospital of the Good Samaritan, Los Angeles, 1983-1984

Honors and Distinction

National Cancer Institute, NIH Cancer Research Training Grant Award, 1974
National Cancer Institute, NIH Cancer Clinical Training Grant Award, 1975
Meetings Best Abstracts American Association for Cancer Research, 1979;
American Society of Clinical Oncology, 1986 and 1989

Co-author, 1st Place Award, The Genetic Revolution,
San Diego, 1994
Member International Who’s Who of Professionals
Distinguished Leadership Award,
International Directory of Distinguished Leadership, 1998
Teaching Awards Consultant of the Year, Family Practice Residency
Program, Mercy General Hospital, Sacramento, CA,
2003, 2008 and 2009
Invited Lectures Management of Breast Cancer in the U.S.,
Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University
Göteborg, Sweden, 1992

Discussant, Clinical Pharmacology Section, American
Society of Clinical Oncology, 1993  

Keynote Speaker, Nordic Clinical Pharmacology Group,
Göteborg, Sweden, 1995

Moderator and Speaker: Trimetrexate/5-FU:
Review of Preclinical Rationale and Pharmacodynamics,
U.S. BioScience Symposium, St. Petersberg, Fl., 8/1998

Some Noteable Achievements

Cancer Drug Development First  studies  of  assay of  thymidylate synthase
Inhibition  in vivo and in clinical tumor biopsies, 1982
using fluorouracil, a first for any cancer drug
Inventor of CoFactor, for 5-FU therapy, USC, 1982
leading to phase III trials (Adventrx Pharmaceuticals)
First Investigator for national trial of breast cancer
treatment vaccine, 1994, USC-Norris Cancer Center

Sparked addition of B-vitamins to Alimta (pemetrexed)
effecting successful Registration Trial,  Eli Lilly 1999
Chemistry Method for Swain-Scott Nucleophilic Selectivities of
Alkylating Agents.
Invention of  selenone  alkylating  agents
using physical organic chemical kinetics, 1990s
Mathematics Generalized Fibonacci Number, definition of, cited in (Mathematica; and the Encyclopedia
of  Mathematics, CRC Publishing, 2003-present)

Mathematical tumor volume doubling relationships, 1979
Erdős Number 3
Novel models for phyllotaxic patterns in plants, 2009,
with Sequential Slide VideoMicroscopy (SSVM) biologic model
Clinical Trials Originated  the first Cancer Clinical Trials at Mercy
General Hospital, Sacramento, CA, from 2001-Present 


California Physician and Surgeon License since 1970

Board Certification

Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine, 1982
Medical Oncology, ABIM, 1985

Professional Appointment

  • Research Scholar: University of Southern Cancer Center, Los Angeles, 1977-1982

  • Assist Prof of Res Med: USC School of Medicine, 1982-1983

  • Clin Assist Prof of Med: USC School of Medicine, 1985-1986

  • Assoc Prof Medicine: Medical Oncology, USC School of Medicine, 1986-1997

  • Prof Clin Medicine: Medical Oncology, USC School of Medicine, 1997-1999

  • Active Staff, Medical Oncology & Hematology, Huntington Memorial Hospital,
    Pasadena, California, 1997-1999

  • Member, Huntington Medical Research Institute, Pasadena, California, 1996-1999

  • Research Scholar, USC Department of Chemistry, Los Angeles, CA, 1998-2001

  • Senior Clinical Research Physician, Oncology Products, Eli Lilly & Company,
    Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. 01/04/99 - 08/04/99

  • Attending Physician, Woodland Clinic, Woodland, CA, 03/01 – 12/01

  • Attending Physician, Sacramento Center for Hematology & Medical Oncology,
    2800 L Street, Sutter Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA, 12/99 - 3/01

  • Attending Physician, Sierra Hematology & Oncology,
    Suite 360, 3939 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819, 03/26/01 – 10/31/16

  • Partner, Sierra Hematology & Oncology Medical Centers, 2001 – 2016

  • Chairman, Cancer Committee, Mercy General Hospital, Community Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, 2008 – 2016

  • Chairman, Weekly Tumor Conference, Mercy General Hospital, Sacramento, 2008 - 2014

  • Chairman, Department of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Mercy General Hospital 2014

  • Member, Institutional Review Board, Catholic HealthCare West,
    Sacramento Region 2001 - present

  • Clinical Professor, California Northstate University, College of Medicine 2013 - present

Graduate & Post-Graduate Teaching

Graduate & Post-Graduate TeachingUSC, 1985-1997

  1. Sang-Ihn Kang, Ph.D., 1985-9. Synthetic chemist. Won a National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Fellowship to work with Dr. Kurt Kohn at the National Cancer Institute’s Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology.

  2. Jashovam Shani, Ph.D., 1984-5. UICC Eleanor Roosevelt Fellow. Appointed Director of the Food and Drug Administration of Israel in 1989.

  3. Nitya G. Kundu, Ph.D., Summer, 1988. UICC Traveling Fellowship, from his post as Professor of Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta, India.

  4. Andrea H. Hayes, Summer, 1987. Junior, pre-med student. USC research done before entry into Dartmouth Medical School.

  5. Shawn Granger, Summer 1988. West Point graduate, USC School of Medicine.

  6. Ph.D. Guidance Committee, Dean of Graduate Studies Representative, Paresh Sanghani, 1996; Elaine Chen, 1992 (USC School of Pharmacy);Jingwen (Jenny) Zheng, 1994; Jeff Wang, 1994.

  7. Helena Gustavsson, premedical student, U. of Göteborg, Sweden, 1992-93.

  8. Francisco Bravo H.S. preceptor and Science Fair judge, 1991 -1999.

  9. University of Göteborg M.D./Ph.D. graduate USC studies preceptor for: Magnus Berne, M.D., Ph.D. (1986), Roland Frösing, M.D., Ph.D. (1992), Per-Anders Larsson (1994).

CNUSOM 2016-present

  1. Aye Khine, 2nd-Yr. Doctoral Candidate, Prolonged Myelosuppression of Bendamustine, and its Low Nucleophilic Selectivity.

  2. Sylvia Bowditch, Cristopher Phillips, and Jacob Stoker, 2nd-Yr. Doctoral Candidates Barriers to Access to Care at Chemotherapy Infusion Centers, by Patients with Paraplegia.

Military Service

U.S. Public Health Service, Lt (03), 1970-1973
Presidio, Marine Hospital, San Francisco, California

Society Memberships

MembershipsPast and Present

  • American Medical Association

  • Sacramento-El Dorado County Medical Association

  • Sierra Sacramento Valley Medical Society

  • Los Angeles County Medical Association

  • Pasadena Medical Society

  • California Medical Association

  • American Association for Cancer Research

  • American Society for Clinical Oncology

  • Association of Northern California Oncologists

  • American Society of Hematology

  • American Chemical Society

  • American Society for Cell Biology - ASCB

  • SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering

  • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

  • International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics

  • International Society for the Study of Comparative Oncology

  • Mathematics Association of America

  • American Mathematics Society

  • Fibonacci Association

  • American Statistical Association

  • South Bay Writers Club (California Writers Club)


  • Biokeys Corporation:   Consultant, Los Angeles, CA, 1997-1999

  • US Bioscience:   Investigator Meetings Faculty, 1997-1999

  • Rhône-Poulenc-Rorer:   Speaker, Area Advisory Board, 1997-1999

  • NCI:   Program Project Reviewer, Division of Cancer Treatment, 1988 (Memorial SKCC), 1991 (Roswell Park), 1993 (Univ. of Michigan), 1994 (Yale Univ.)

  • NCI, NIH:   Phase I-II Cancer Pharmacokinetics Contracts Review Committee, 1997

  • NIH, PHS SBIR and STTR:   Reviewer, 1994, 1995

  • NCI:   Extramural R13 Reviewer, 1991

  • NCI:   Special Emphasis Panel, Chemopreventive Agent Contracts, 1992

  • NATO:   Referee, Collaborative Research Grants, 1991

  • SPIE:   International Working Group in Electronic Imaging

  • Regional Cancer Treatment:   Member, Editorial Board

  • Reviewer:   J. Med. Chem., Cancer Res., Cancer, J. Biol. Chem., J. Natl. Cancer Inst., Biochem. Pharmacol., Eur. J. Oncol., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., Fibonacci Quarterly, Oncology Research, Gastroenterology, Int. J. Cancer, Drugs

Hospital Staff Privileges


  • Mercy General Hospital, Sacramento, CA

  • Woodland Memorial Hospital, Woodland, CA

  • Mercy San Juan Hospital, Carmichael, CA

  • Mercy Folsom Hospital, Folsom, CA

  • Methodist Hospital, South Sacramento, CA


  • Sacramento, CA:   Sutter General Hospital and Sutter Memorial Hospital.

  • Davis, CA:   Sutter Davis Hospital, 1999-2001.

  • Pasadena, CA:   Huntington Memorial Hospital and St. Luke Medical Center, 2/97 - 1/99.

  • Los Angeles, CA:   The Hospital of the Good Samaritan, 1984-7, Norris Cancer Hospital, 1987-1997, USC University Hospital, 1992-1997.

Locum Tenens

  • Practice of Mark Farbstein,
    Hematology/Medical Oncology, Pasadena, CA, 11/96

  • Practice of Lowell Irwin, M.D. and M. Mercedes Brenneisen, M.D.,
    MedicalOncology/Hematology, Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley, CA, 1990s.

  • Practice of Mark Turrill, M.D.,
    Medical Oncology/Hematology, Lakeport, CA, 1999.

  • Practice of Herbert A. Hartman, Jr., M.D.,
    Methodist Cancer Center, Omaha, NE, 2000.

Research Grants as Principal Investigator

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

R01 CA39629-04, Biochemistry of 5-Fluorouracil Effects $185,782 Direct costs awarded; 5-01-88 to 4-30-91;
CA39629-06S1, $27,285, 5-1-91 - 11-30-91.

Lederle Laboratories

Grant #179,000, (l) Leucovorin Addition to Protracted Infusion Fluorouracil, $92,055; 3-31-92.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

CA39629-07, Biochemistry and Pathology of 5-FU/&Folate Therapy, $356,977 Direct costs awarded; 7-1-92-6-30-95.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

CA39629-08S, $15,000 Direct costs awarded; 1/1/94-6/30/94.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

CA39629-09, Biochemistry and Pathology of 5-FU/Folate Therapy, $117,000 Direct costs awarded; 7/1/94-6/30/95.

TherO2x, Inc.

Oxygen supersaturated crystalloids as radiation sensitizers, $10,000, 9/95.

University of Göteborg

Pharmacodynamics of TS Inhibition, $15,000, 10/1/95.

Bristol Myers-Squibb, Oncology Division

Sequence Dependency of Hydroxyurea and Fluorouracil, $24,000, 7/1/96-2/1/97.

U.S. Bioscience

Biochemical Correlates of Neutrexin/5-FU/LV in Colorectal Cancer, $25,000, 1997.

Rhône-Poulenc Rorer/University of Göteborg

Image Cytometry of Thymidylate synthase and Ki-67 in Phase 3 Colorectal Cancer Patients Randomised to 5-Fluorouracil vs. Camsar, $25,000, 1997-8.

USC National Environmental Health Sciences Center (NIEHS)

Alkylating Activities and Mutagenicities of Oxygenated Fuel Additives, $15,000, January, 1997.

Research Grants as Co-Investigator

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

RFA CA93-09, Phase II Trials of New Anticancer Agents, $237,048 Direct costs awarded; P.I.: Franco M. Muggia; 5% effort; 6/10/94-6/9/98.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

1-U02 CA62505-01 (RFA CA93-07), Phase I Contract, Phase I Molecular and Clinical Pharmacodynamic Trials; P.I.: Franco Muggia; 5% effort; 1994-1998.

National Institutes of Health, Medical Sciences Training Program

Training of Medical Scientists in Modern Biology; P.I.: Richard Bergman; 5% effort; 1994.


Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1. Spears, C.P., Hyatt, K.H., Vogel, J.M., and Langfitt, S.G. Unified method for serial study of body fluid compartments.
    Aerosp. Med., 45:274-278, 1974.

  2. Hyatt, K.H., Johnson, P.C., Hoffler, G.W., Rambaut, P.C., Rummel, J.A., Hulley, S.B., Vogel, J.M., Huntoon, C., and Spears, C.P. Effect of potassium depletion in normal males: an Apollo 15 simulation.
    Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 46:11-15, 1975.

  3. Moran, R.G., Spears, C.P., and Heidelberger, C. Biochemical determinants of tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil: ultrasensitive methods for the determination of 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridylate, 2’-deoxyuridylate, and thymidylate synthetase.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75:1456-1460, 1979.

  4. Spears, C.P. Nucleophilic selectivity ratios of model and clinical alkylating agents by 4-(4’-nitrobenzyl)pyridine product competition.
    Mol. Pharmacol., 19:496-504, 1981.

  5. Peterson, A.R., Landolph, J.R., Peterson, H., Spears, C.P., and Heidelberger, C. Oncogenic transformation and mutation of C3H&10T1&2 CL 8 mouse embryo fibroblasts by alkylating agents.
    Cancer Res., 41:3095-3099, 1981.

  6. Spears, C.P., Shahinian, A.H., Moran, R.G., Heidelberger, C., and Corbett, T.H. In vivo kinetics of thymidylate synthetase inhibition in 5-fluorouracil-sensitive and resistant murine colon adenocarcinomas.
    Cancer Res., 42:450-456, 1982.

  7. Spears, C.P. Thymidylate synthetase inhibition in Peyton colon adenocarcinoma xenografts following bolus 5-fluorouracil.
    Exerpta Med. Int. Congr. Series 647:12-19, 1984.

  8. Spears, C.P. Volume doubling measurement of spherical and ellipsoidal tumors.
    Med. Pediat. Oncol., 12:212-217, 1984.

  9. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Mitchell, M.S., Spicer, D.V., Berne, M., Bernstein, L., and Danenberg, P.V. Thymidylate synthetase inhibition in malignant tissues and normal liver of patients given intravenous 5-fluorouracil.
    Cancer Res., 44:4144-4150, 1984.

  10. Spears, C.P., Shani, J., Shahinian, A.H., Wolf, W., Heidelberger, C., and Danenberg, P.V. Assay and time course of 5-fluorouracil incorporation into RNA of L1210&0 ascites cells in vivo.
    Mol. Pharmacol., 27:302-307, 1985.

  11. Berne, M.H.O., Gustavsson, B.G., Almersjo, O., Spears, C.P., and Frösing, R. Sequential methotrexate-5-FU: FdUMP formation and TS inhibition in a transplantable rodent colon adenocarcinoma.
    Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 16:237-242, 1986.

  12. Berne, M.H.O., Gustavsson, B., Almersjo, O., Spears, C.P., and Waldenstrom, J. Concurrent allopurinol and 5!fluorouracil: 5-fluoro!2’-deoxyuridylate formation and thymidylate synthase inhibition in rat colon carcinoma and in regenerating rat liver.
    Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 20:193-197, 1987.

  13. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Linear free energy relationships and cytotoxicities of para!substituted 2-haloethylarylselenides and bis(2-chloroethyl)selenides.
    J. Med. Chem., 30:597-602, 1987.

  14. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. A facile synthesis of 2- and 3-hydroxyalkylseleno compounds.
    Synthesis, 133-135, 1988.

  15. Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Methods for thymidylate synthase pharmacodynamics: Serial Biopsy, free and total TS, FdUMP and dUMP, and H4PteGlu and CH2-H4PteGlu assays.
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 244: 97-106, 1988.

  16. Gustavsson, B.G., Carlsson, G., Frösing, R., and Spears, C.P. Pharmacodynamics of fluorouracil and leucovorin.
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 244: 219-224, 1988.

  17. Berne, M., Gustavsson, B., Almersjo, O., Spears, C.P., and Sundstrom, E. Inhibition of thymidylate synthase after administration of doxifluridine in a transplantable colon carcinoma in the rat.
    Cancer Invest., 6:377-384, 1988.

  18. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Berne, M., Frösing, R., and Hayes, A.A. Mechanisms of innate resistance to thymidylate synthase inhibition after fluorouracil.
    Cancer Res., 48:5894-5900, 1988.

  19. Peterson, A.R., Peterson, H., Spears, C.P., Trosko, J.E., and Sevanian, A. Mutagenic characterization of cholesterol epoxides in Chinese hamster V79 cells.
    Mut. Res., 203:355-366, 1988.

  20. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., and Frösing, R. Folinic acid modulation of fluorouracil: kinetics of bolus administration.
    Invest. New Drugs, 7:27-36, 1989.

  21. Spears, C.P., Hayes, A.H., Danenberg, P.V., Shahinian, A., Frösing, R., and Gustavsson, B.G. Deoxyuridylate effects on thymidylate synthase-5-fluorodeoxyuridylate-folate ternary complex formation.
    Biochem. Pharmacol., 38:2985-2993, 1989.

  22. Buzaid, A.C., Alberts, D.S., Einspahr, J., Mosley, K., Peng, Y-M., Garewal, H.S., Tutsch, K., and Spears, C.P. Effect of dipyridamole on fluorodeoxyuridine cytotoxicity in vitro and in cancer patients.
    Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 25:124-130, 1989.

  23. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Structure-activity studies on organoselenium alkylating agents.
    J. Pharm Sci., 79:57-62, 1990.

  24. Leichman, C.G., Leichman, L., Spears, C.P., Rosen, P., Muggia, F.M., Jeffers, S., and Waugh, W. Biological modification of protracted infusion of 5-fluorouracil with weekly leucovorin. A dose seeking clinical trial for patients with disseminated gastrointestinal cancers.
    Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 26:57-61, 1990.

  25. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Phenyl selenones: alkyl transfer by selenium-carbon bond-cleavage.
    J. Med. Chem., 33:1544-1547, 1990.

  26. Kundu, N.G., Das, B., Spears, C.P., Mazumder, A., and Kang, S-I. Synthesis and biological activities of novel 5-(2-acylethynyl)uracils.
    J. Med. Chem., 33:1975-1979, 1990.

  27. Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B.G., Spears, C.P., and Hofström, L-O. 5-Fluorouracil plus leucovorin as adjuvant therapy of an experimental liver tumor in rats.
    Anticancer Res., 10:813-816, 1990.

  28. Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B.G., Glimelius, B., Graf, W., Påhlman, L., and Spears, C.P. Sequential 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with advanced symptomatic colorectal cancer.
    Eur. J. Cancer, 26:874-876, 1990.

  29. Horikoshi, T., Danenberg, K.D., Stadlbauer, T.H.W., Volkenandt, M., Shea, L.C.C., Aigner, K., Gustavsson, B.G., Leichman, L., Frösing, R., Ray, M., Gibson, N.W., Spears, C.P., and Danenberg, P.V. Quantitation of thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase, and DT!diaphorase gene expression in human tumors using the polymerase chain reaction.
    Cancer Res., 52:108-116, 1992.

  30. Leichman, L., Silberman, H., Leichman, C.G., Spears, C.P., et al. Preoperative systemic chemotherapy followed by adjuvant postoperative intraperitoneal therapy for gastric cancer: a University of Southern California pilot program.
    J. Clin. Oncol., 10:1933-1942, 1992.

  31. Leichman, C.G., Leichman, L., Spears, C.P., Rosen, P.J., Jeffers, S., and Groshen, S. Prolonged continuous infusion of fluorouracil with weekly bolus leucovorin: a phase II study in patients with disseminated colorectal cancer.
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 85:41-44, 1993.

  32. Hoier, H., Carrell, H.L., Glusker, J.P., and Spears, C.P. Structure of ethyl phenylselenone.
    Acta Crystallogr., 49:520-523, 1993.

  33. Kundu, N.G., Dasgupta, S.K., Chadhuri, L.N., Mahanty, J.S., Spears, C.P., and Shahinian, A.H. Synthesis and biological activities of 5-(2-acylvinyl) uracils.
    Eur. J. Med. Chem., 28:473-479, 1993.

  34. Carlsson, G., Hofström, L-O., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Sequential 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. An experimental study in rats with hepatic metastasis of a rat colon carcinoma: clinical relevance for scheduling.
    Reg. Cancer Treat., 3:140-143, 1993.

  35. Muggia, F.M., Tulpule, A., Retzios, A., Chen, F., Jeffers, S., Leichman, C.G., Leichman, L., Spears, C.P., and Chan, K.K. Intraperitoneal 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine with escalating doses of leucovorin: pharmacology and clinical tolerance.
    Invest. New Drugs, 12:197-206, 1994.

  36. Spears, C.P. Clinical resistance to antimetabolites.
    Hematol./Oncol. Clin. N. Amer., 9:397-413, 1995.

  37. Carlsson, G., Larsson, P-A., Frösing, R., Hafström, L-O., Spears, C.P., Peterson, A., and Gustavsson, B. 5-Fluorouracil sensitive adenocarcinoma - A new experimental model in the rat.
    Anticancer Res., 15:433-440, 1995.

  38. Kundu, N.G., Mahanty, J.S., Spears, C.P., Andrei, G., Snoek, R., Balzarini, J., and DeClercq, E. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of [E]-5-(2-acylvinyl)-2’-deoxyuridines and their biological activities.
    Bioorg. Medicinal Chem. Lett., 5:1627-1632, 1995.

  39. Leichman, L., Lenz, H-J., Leichman, C.G., Groshen, S., Danenberg, K., Baranda, J., Spears, C.P., Boswell, W., Silberman, H., Ortega, A., Stain, S., Beart, R., and Danenberg, P. Quantitation of intratumoral thymidylate synthase expression predicts for resistance to protracted infusion of 5-fluorouracil and weekly leucovorin in disseminated colorectal cancers: preliminary report from an ongoing trial.
    Eur. J. Cancer, 31A:1306-1310, 1995.

  40. Larsson, P-A., Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B., Hafström, L-O., Peterson, A., and Spears, C.P. Effects of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate on rat colon tumour growth and biomodulation of 5-fluorouracil.
    Reg. Cancer Treat., 8:101-108, 1995.

  41. Banerjee, D., Lenz, H-J., Schnieders, B., Manno, D.J., Ju, J.F., Spears, C.P., Hochhauser, D., Danenberg, K., Danenberg, P., and Bertino, J.R. Transfection of wild-type but not mutant p53 induces early monocytic differentiation in HL60 cells and increases their sensitivity to stress.
    Cell Growth & Differ., 6:1405-1413, 1995.

  42. Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B., Frösing, R., Odin, E., Hafström, L-O., Spears, C.P., and Larsson, P-A. Antitumour effects of pure diastereoisomers of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate in hepatic transplants of a rodent colon carcinoma model.
    Biochem. Pharmacol., 50:1347-1351, 1995.

  43. Kundu, N.G., Mahanty, J.S., Spears, C.P., Andrei, G., Snoeck, R., Balzarini, J.,DeClerque,E., Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of (E)-5-(2-acylvinyl)-2'-deoxyuridines and their antiviral and cytotoxic activities.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 5:1627-1632, 1995.

  44. Spears, C.P., Carlsson, G., Muggia, F.M., Waugh, W., Jaresko, G., and Gustavsson, B.G. Aspects of one-carbon folate cycling related to fluoropyrimidine and antifolate therapy.
    Cancer Treat. Res. 78: 115-134, 1995.

  45. Bicknell-Johnson, M., and Spears, C.P. Classes of identities for the generalized Fibonacci numbers Gn = Gn-1 + Gn-c from matrices with constant valued determinants.
    Fibonacci Quarterly 34.3:121-128, 1996.

  46. Larsson, P.-A., Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B, and Spears, C.P. Thymidylate synthase in advanced gastrointestinal and breast cancers.
    Acta Oncol. 35:469-472,1996.

  47. Kundu, N.G., Mahanty, J.S., Unusual cytotoxicities of 5-(acylethynyl)-1-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)methyl uracils.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 6:1497-1502, 1996.

  48. Das, P., Spears, C.P., Shahinian, A.H., Dasgupta, S.K., and Kundu, N.G. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of some biologically-active 5,6-disubstituted uracils.
    Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 6: 2477-2480, 1996.

  49. Quan, W.D.Y., Jr., Dean, G.E., Spears, L., Spears, C.P., Groshen, S., Merritt, J.A., and Mitchell, M.A. Active Specific Immunotherapy of Metastatic Melanoma with Anti-Idiotype Vaccine: A Phase I/II Trial of I-Mel-2 Plus SAF-m.
    J. Clin. Oncol. 15: 2103-2110, 1997.

  50. Carlsson, G., Odin, E., P-A. Larsson, Frösing, R., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B., Phase I-II study of weekly 5-fluorouracil and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate in patients with advanced gastrointestinal and breast cancer
    Cancer J. 10: 266-273, 1997.

  51. Frösing, R., Gustavsson, B., Carlsson, G., Larsson, P-A., Odin, E., and Spears, C.P. Decreases in FdUMP ligand-binding sites in normal liver and adenocarcinoma in patients receiving various folates.
    Reg. Cancer Treat., 1997.

  52. Odin, E., Carlsson, G., Frösing, R., Gustavsson, B., Spears, C.P., and Larsson, P.A. Chemical stability and human plasma pharmacokinetics of reduced folates.
    Cancer Invest. 16(7):447-455, 1998.

  53. Spears,C.P., S-I Kang, N.G. Kundu, T. Shamma, and G.A. Olah. Swain-Scott constants and alkylating agent drug design.
    Current Topics Medicinal Chem. 2:85-100, 1997.

  54. Carlsson, G., Hafström, L-O, and Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B., and Larsson, P.A 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate (CH2FH4) as adjuvant therapy in an experimental colon carcinoma in rats.
    Anticancer Res.17(5A):3671-3674, 1997.

  55. Yang, L., Chiang, Y., Lenz, H.J., Danenberg, K.D., Spears, C,P., Gordon, E.M., Anderson, W.F., and Parekh, D. Intercellular communication mediates the bystander effect during herpes simplex thymidine kinase/ganciclovir-based gene therapy of human gastrointestinal tumor cells.
    Hum. Gene Ther. 9:719-728, 1998.

  56. Spears, C.P., and Bicknell-Johnson, M. Asymmetric cell division: Binomial identities for age analysis of mortal and immortal trees.
    Fibonacci Numbers and their Applications 7: 377-391, 1998.

  57. Ju, J.F., Banerjee, D., Lenz, H.J., Danenberg, K.D., Schmittgen, T.C., Spears, C.P., Schonthal, A.H., Manno, D.J., Hochhauser, D., Bertino, J.R., and Danenberg, P.V. Restoration of wild-type p53 activity in p53-null HL-60 cells confers multidrug sensitivity.
    Clin. Cancer Res. 4(5):1315-1322, 1998.

  58. Kundu, N.G., Mahanty, J.S., Chowdhury, C., Dasgupta, S.K., Das, B., Spears, C.P., Balzarini, J., and De Clerq, E. 5-(Acylethynyl)uracils, 5-(acylethynyl)-2'-deoxyuridines and 5-(acylethynyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyluracils. Their synthesis, antiviral and cytotoxic activities.
    Eur. J. Medicinal Chem. 34(5):389-398, 1999.

  59. Williams-Hill, D.M., Spears, C.P., Parkash, S., Olah, G.A., Shamma, T., Moin, T., Kim, L.Y.,and Hill, C.K. Mutagenicity studies of methy-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) using the Ames tester strain TA102
    Mutation Res. 446:15-21, 1999.

  60. Garcia, A.A, Muggia, F.M., Spears, C.P., Jeffers, S., Silberman, H., Pujari, M., Koda, R.T. Phase I and pharmacologic study of i.v. hydroxyurea infusion given with i.p. 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine and leucovorin.
    Anticancer Drugs 12(6):505-511, 2001.

  61. Odin, E., Wettergren, Y., Nilsson, S., Willen, R., Carlsson, G., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B. Altered gene expression of folate enzymes in adjacent mucosa is associated with outcome of colorectal cancer patients.
    Clin. Cancer Res. 9(16):6012-6019, 2004.

  62. Spears, C.P., Bicknell-Johnson, M., and Yan, J.J. Fibonacci Phyllotaxis by Asymmetric Cell Division: Zeckendorf and Wythoff Trees.
    Congressus Numerantium 201: 257-272, 2009.

  63. Bicknell-Johnson, M. and Spears, C.P. Lucas Quotient Lemmas.
    Congressus Numerantium 201: 273-275, 2009.

  64. Bicknell-Johnson, M. and Spears, C.P. Hexahexaflexagons: a Mathematical Ramble.
    Aportaciones Matimaticas Investigation 20: 61-70, 2011.

  65. Bicknell-Johnson, M. and Spears, C.P. The Golden Ratio in Classical Maya Architecture.
    Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Fibonacci Numbers and their Applications, Eszterhay College, Eger, Hungary, June 26, 2012.

  66. Verstovsek S, Mersa RA, Gotlib J, … Spears, C.P et al. Efficacy, Safety, and Survival with Ruxolitinib in Patients with Myelofibrosis: Results of a Median 3 - years follow up of COMFORT-I. Haematologica.
    2015 Apr;100(4):479-88.

  67. Vannucchi AM, Kantarjian HM, Kiladjian JJ, …Spears C.P et al. A Pooled Analysis of Overall Survival in COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, 2 Randomized Phase III Trials of Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Myelofibrosis. Haematologica. 2015 Sep;100(9): 1139-45.

Miscellaneous Publications

  1. Spears, C.P. Thymidylate synthetase inhibition in Peyton adenocarcinoma xenografts following bolus 5-fluorouracil. Exerpta Med. Int. Congr. Series, 647:12-19, 1984.

  2. Spears, C.P. Management of the Patient with Paraneoplasia. Hospital of the Good Samaritan Manual, Hematology-Oncology Unit, 1984, pp. 1-118.

  3. Spears, C.P., Ray, M., Granger, S., Diasio, R.B., and Gustavsson, B.G. Dual role of serine hydroxymethyltransferase in the synergy of fluorouracil and leucovorin: effects of L-serine and glycine on H4PteGlu/5,10-CH2-H4PteGlu ratios; and H4PteGlu-catalyzed release of fluoride ion from alpha!fluoro!beta-alanine. IN: Pteridines and Folic Acid Derivatives (H.Ch. Curtius, S. Ghisla and N. Blau, eds.), Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1990.

  4. Alaverdian, A., Spears, C.P., Kang, S-I., and Shahinian, A.H. High nitrogen and low sulfur selectivities of alkyl aryl selenones and activities against drug!resistant tumor cell lines. USC Undergrad. J., 2: (1992).

  5. Spears, C.P., and Danenberg, P.V. Thymidylate synthase pharmacodynamics; Minutes of the NCI Phase I Working Group, NCI, CTEP, DCT. Bethesda, MD, October 27 and 28, pp 87-109, 1993.

  6. Spears, C. P., Thyroid Cancer, IN: The Complete Cancer Survival Guide, by P. Teely and P. Bashe, Doubleday Books, May, 2000.

  7. Spears, C. P. Writers Block and A Song of Fertility. Poems in: Writers Talk, Monthly Newsletter of South Bay Writers Club. 21(6):10,11,2013

  8. [Bicknell-Johnson, M] and Spears, C.P. "Cabbage Math" on Page 13. Vol 23, No 12, Dec 2015 Writer Talk


  1. Spears, C.P. Tumor Growth Measurement Device.
    U.S. Patent 4,131,998. Jan 2, 1979.

  2. Spears, C.P. Biopsy Retriever.
    U.S. Patent 5, 133, 360. July 28, 1992.

  3. Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Use of 5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate as a Modulator of a Chemotherapeutic Agent.
    U.S. Patent 5, 376,650. December 27, 1994.

  4. Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Use of 5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate as a Modulator of a Chemotherapeutic Agent (Continuation in Part)
    U.S. Patent 5,534,519. July 9, 1996.

  5. Spears, C.P., and Kang, S!I. 2-Chloroethyl Aryl Selenones against Alkylating Agent Resistant Cancer Cells.
    U.S. Patent 5,614,562. March 25, 1997.

  6. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, G., and Carlsson, G. 5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate as a Modulator of a Chemotherapeutic Agent,
    Canadian Patent Application 2,082,881, Notice of Allowance March 16, 2004.

Selected Abstracts

  1. Heidelberger, C., and Spears, C.P. Determinants of sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU): new ultrasensitive assays for 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate (FdUMP), deoxyuridylate (dUMP), and thymidylate synthetase (TS).
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 20:63, 1979.

  2. Spears, C.P., Shahinian, A.H., and Heidelberger, C. Relationship between 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapeutic efficacy and thymidylate synthetase (TS) inhibition in murine colon carcinomas.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 22:206, 1981.

  3. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Berne, M., and Heidelberger, C. Thymidylate synthetase inhibition by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment of human gastrointestinal malignancies: dump/&FdUMP ratio as a determinant.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 24:133, 1983.

  4. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Leissner, K.H. and Danenberg, P.V. Parameters of thymidylate synthetase (TS) inhibition in bladder carcinoma after intravesical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with systemic allopurinol protection.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 25:166, 1984.

  5. Gustavsson, B.G., Berne, M., Frösing, R., and Spears, C.P. Thymidylate synthetase inhibition in dimethylhydrazine!induced rat colon carcinoma after sequential methotrexate/5-fluorouracil administration.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 26:241, 1985.

  6. Spears, C.P., Danenberg, P.V., and Gustavsson, B. Intracellular biochemical pharmacodynamics as a clinical approach to drug sensitivity testing of solid tumors.
    Eur. Conf. Clin. Oncol., 3:43, 1985.

  7. Spears, C.P., Berne, M.H., and Gustavsson, B.G. Lack of heterogeneity in pharmacodynamic studies of gastrointestinal tumors treated with 5-fluorouracil.
    Int. Cancer Congr. XIV, 1986.

  8. Spears, C.P., Frösing, R., and Gustavsson, B.G. Intracellular pharmacodynamics of 5-fluorouracil in tumors and normal tissues.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 5:1986.

  9. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Selenium Mustards: reactivity correlations in a new class of cytotoxic alkylating agents.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 27:1106, 1986.

  10. Schwartz, J., Alberts, D., Einspahr, J., Peng, Y-M., and Spears, P. Dipyridamole potentiation of FUDR activity against human colon cancer in vitro and in patients.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 6:325, 1987.

  11. Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Deoxyuridylate!fluorodeoxyuridylate competition for binding to bacterial thymidylate synthase at low folate concentrations.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 28:321, 1987.

  12. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., and Frösing, R. Serial tumor biopsy analysis of 5-FU/leucovorin.
    Int. Conf. Regional Cancer Ther., Ulm & Donau, 1987.

  13. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Carlsson, G., and Frösing, R. Fluorouracil& leucovorin pharmacodynamics: determination by serial biopsy.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 29:186, 1988.

  14. Spears, C.P., Gustavsson, B.G., Carlsson, G., Frösing, R., Waugh, W., Leichman, C.G., and Muggia, F.M. Activation of leucovorin to methylenetetrahydrofolate for improving thymidylate synthase inhibition after 5-FU: effects of CF dose, L-serine, L-glutamate, and direct methyl-tetrahydrofolate administration.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 8:69, 1989.

  15. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Organoselenones: alkylation by selenium-carbon bond breakage.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 30:459, 1989.

  16. Kang, S-I., and Spears, C.P. Linear free energy relationships and cytotoxicities of para!substituted 2!haloethylaryl selenides and bis-(2-chloroethyl) selenides.
    Quant. Struct.-Act. Relat., 7:109, 1988.

  17. Leichman, G., Leichman, L., Rosen, P., Spears, C.P., et al. Biologic modification of continuous low-dose infusion of 5-fluorouracil by low-dose leucovorin.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 8:73, 1989.

  18. Spears, C.P. Multiple roles of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) in the modulation of fluorouracil by leucovorin: correlation of high H4PteGlu levels with response; and SHMT inhibition and fluoride ion production by alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL).
    Int. Symp. Pteridines and Folic Acid Derivatives, 9:138, 1989.

  19. Spears, C.P., Granger, S., Ray, M., Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B.G. Tetrahydrofolate (FH4)-mediated fluoride ion (F-) production by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) processing of FBAL.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 31:396, 1990.

  20. Spears, C.P., Waugh, W., Leichman, L., Leichman, C.G., Jeffers, S., Gustavsson, B.G., and Muggia, F.M. Salvage therapy of breast cancer with fluorouracil (5-FU) and high!dose leucovorin (LV): response correlations with tumor pharmacodynamics.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 9:, 1990.

  21. Leichman, L., Silberman, H., Leichman, C., Laine, L., Ramos, H., Spears, P., and Jeffers, S. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) followed by postoperative intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 9:109, 1990.

  22. Leichman C., Leichman, L., Spears, C.P., Jeffers, S., Chavez, J., Groshen, S., Waugh, W., and Rosen, P. Phase II study of protracted infusion 5!fluorouracil (5-FU) with weekly leucovorin (LV) in disseminated, measurable adenocarcinoma of the large bowel.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 9:129, 1990.

  23. Leichman, C.G., Leichman, L., Spears, C.P., Rosen, P., and Jeffers, S. Phase II study of prolonged infusion 5-fluorouracil (PIFU) with weekly leucovorin (LV) in disseminated colorectal cancer (CRC).
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 10:143, 1991.

  24. Spears, C.P., Carlsson, G., Leichman, C.G., Gustavsson, B.G., and Leichman, L. Folated-mediated thymidylate synthase (TS) pharmacodynamics (PD): Effect of modulators of fluoropyrimidine therapy.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 10:118, 1991.

  25. Spears, C.P. Aqueous, in vitro method for determination of linear free energy relationship (LFER) parameters such as Swain-Scott constants in the kinetics of alkylating agents, in reactions with model nucleophiles.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 32:434, 1991.

  26. Tulpule, A., Chan, K., Muggia, F.M., Spears, C.P., Spicer, D., and Jeffers, S. Uracil (U) + Ftorafur (FT): Pharmacokinetic profile of an orally active 5-fluorouracil (FU) prodrug.
    Clin. Res., 1991.

  27. Muggia, F.M., Chan, K., Tulpule, A., Shahinian, A., Retzios, A., Spears, C.P., Leichman, L., and Jeffers, S. Intraperitoneal (IP) floxuridine (FUDR)+(d,l)-leucovorin (LV): results of pharmacologic studies with LV dose-escalation.
    Clin. Res., 1991.

  28. Spicer, D., Muggia, F., Tulpule, A., Chan, K., Leichman, G., Spears, P., and Jeffers, S. Phase I circadian dosing of daily oral uracil (U) plus l-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-5-fluorouracil (FT) with leucovorin (LV).
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 10:118, 1991.

  29. Spears, C.P., Carlsson, G., Shahinian, A.H., Gustavsson, B.G., and Frösing, R. Pharmacologic (6R,S)-tetrahydrofolate (FH4): synergy with fluorouracil (FUra) by increased thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition, decreased methylene units, and promotion of unbalanced growth.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 33:264, 1992.

  30. Spears, C.P., Leichman, C.G., Muggia, F.M., Retzios, A., Imam, A., Kiyabu, M.Y., and Leichman, L. (l)-Leucovorin (l-LV) plus infusion 5-FU: thymidylate synthase (TS) effects in tumor extracts and digital image analysis quantitation.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 11:116, 1992.

  31. Muggia, F.M., Jeffers, J., Leichman, C.G., Tulpule, A., Hanisch, R., Fuerst, M., Spears, C.P., Wu, X.Y., Chan, K., Spicer, D., and Leichman, L. Potential for uracil+ftorafur (UFT) to mimic protracted infusions of 5-fluorouracil (FU).
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 11:135, 1992.

  32. Spears, C.P., Su, S., Gustavsson, H., and Stevenson, L.A. Digital image analysis (DIA) of in situ thymidylate synthase (TS) protein and mRNA message using a modular system for RGB image processing.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 34:417, 1993.

  33. Grunberg, S.M., Spears, C.P., Jelliffe, R.W., Zaretsky, S., Shahinian, A.H., Su, S., and Tahani, B. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic (PK) study of high-dose edatrexate (EDX) with leucovorin (LV) rescue (Protocol NCI-T91-0077).
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 12:154, 1993.

  34. Carlsson, G., Gustavsson, B.G., Hafström, L.O., and Spears, C.P. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2FH4) as adjuvant therapy in an experimental colonic adenocarcinoma in rats.
    18th Int. Congr. Chemother., Abstract No. 272, p. 168 of Proceedings, Stockholm, 1993.

  35. Kundu, N.G., Mahanty, J.S., Dasgupta, S.K., and Spears, C.P. Synthesis and biological activities of 5-(acylethynyl)uracils, 5-(2-acylvinyl)uracils and their corresponding 2-deoxyribonucleosides.
    Division of Medicinal Chemistry, 206th ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL, August 22!27, 1993.

  36. Grunberg, S.M., Spears, C.P., Natale, R., Zaretsky, S., and Ashigawa, T. Phase I evaluation of high-dose edatrexate (EDX) with leucovorin (LV) rescue.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 13:146, 1994.

  37. Larsson, P-A., Carlsson, C., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. 5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate (CH2FH4) effects on rat colon tumor growth and biomodulation of 5-fluorouracil (FUra).
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 35:426, 1994.

  38. Avramis, V.I., Larson, G.P., Spears, C.P., Kwock, R., Nelson, P., Muthini, S., and Rossi, J.J. Hammerhead ribozymes as anti-oncogene (N-myc) biotherapeutic agents.
    Proc. Genet. Revolution, p. 11, 1994.

  39. Avramis, V.I., Larson, G.P., Spears, C.P., Kwock, R., Nelson, P., Muthlnl, S., and Rossi, J.J. Hammerhead ribozymes as anti-oncogene (N-myc) biotherapeutic agents.
    Clin. Chem., 40:2336, 1994.

  40. Muggia, F., Israel, V., Pujari, M., Spears, C.P., Leichman, L., Leichman, C.G., Jeffers, S., Rogers, M., and Koda, R. Intraperitoneal (IP) floxuridine (FUDR) and leucovorin (LV) with simultaneous 72h hydroxyurea (HU) IV infusion: pharmacology and tolerance.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 36:241, 1995.

  41. Periclou, A.P., Spears, C.P., Grunberg, S.M., Lee, W.Y., Koda, R., and Avramis, V.I. Pharmacokinetic analyses of 10-edatrexate following a Phase I short-term continuous infusion in patients with carcinomas.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 14:458, 1995.

  42. Das, P., Kundu, N.G., Spears, C.P., and Su, S. Synthesis and biological activities of 6-(2-acylvinyl) uracils.
    Division of Medicinal Chemistry, 207th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, April 2-6, 1995.

  43. Carlsson, G., Frösing, R., Larsson, P-A., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B.G. Fluorouracil (FU) plus 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate ((d,l)-CH2FH4): Phase I-II trial of weekly i.v. bolus therapy.
    Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., 14:469, 1995.

  44. Koda, R., Parimoo, D., Spears, C.P., Israel, V., Jeffers, S., Rogers, M., Leichman, L., Leichman, C.G., Pujari, M., and Muggia, F. Hydroxyurea (HU) IV 72-hour infusion during intraperitoneal (IP) fluxouridine (FUDR) and leucovorin (LV): pharmacologic/clinical correlates.
    Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 37:181, 1996.

  45. Spears, C.P., Vergon, C., Polonsky, M., Masterson, M., Habboubi, N., Carlsson, C., Gustavsson, B.G., and the Nordic Biomodulation Group, Phase I/II sequential trimetrexate/split-dose fluorouracil therapy in advanced colorectal cancer.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 17: 1999.

  46. Alvarez, E., Menon, K., Bewley, J.R., Spears, C.P., Schultz, R.M., Teicher, B.A., Chen, V.J., and Galbreath, E. Immunohistochemical detection of in vivo alteration of thymidylate synthase levels in a human HCT116 colon carcinoma tumor xenograft induced by the use of MTA (LY231514).
    Clin. Cancer Res. 5 (Suppl. S):657, 1999.

  47. Yazan, O., Spears, C.P., Carlsson, G. Gustavsson, B., Ingram, M.L., and Gruia, G. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and Ki-67 expression in tumor cells of patients with advanced colon cancer randomized to irinotecan (CPT-11) vs. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
    Ann. Oncol. 11 (Suppl.4):234P, 2000. (Proceeding of the 25th ESMO Congress, 13-17 October, Hamburg, Germany.

  48. Lenz, H, Iqbal, S., Groshen, S., Muggia, F.M., Tsao-Wei, D., Johnson , K., Spears, C.P., Gandara, D.R., Yen, Y., Doroshow, J.H., and Newman, E.M. Phase I study of sequency dependency of iv hydroxyurea (HU) in combination with fluorouracil (5-FU).
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 20:95b, 2001.

  49. Odin, E., Wettergren, Y., Carlsson, G., Larsson, L., Spears, C.P., and Gustavsson, B. Gene Expression Ratios of folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) in colorectal carcinoma and paired normal mucosa.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 20: #359, 2001.

  50. Gustavsson, B., Xiog, S., Salonga, D., Cooc, J., Danenberg, K., Carlsson, G., Odin, E., Spears, P., Lord, R.V., and Danenberg, P.V. Inverse relation between DPD mRNA expression and response to 5FU/LV therapy versus 5FU/5, 10, methylenetetrahydrofolate therapy for patients with colorectal cancer.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 21:115a, 2002.

  51. Spears, C.P., Carlsson, G., Odin, E., and Gustavsson, B. More rapid and complete thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition in tumors after 5-FU by methylene-tetrahydrofolate (CH2FH4) preloading.
    EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium, Frankfurt, Germany, November, 2003. Eur. J. Cancer 38 (Suppl.7):S22, 2002.

  52. Cantwell, M.J.,Spears, C.P., Robbins, J.M. Antitumor activity of combination of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, 5-fluorouracil, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor against human colorectal HT-29 tumors in nude mice.
    Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 22: 311s (Abstract 3768), 2004.

  53. Spears, C.P., Pineda, R., Reid, T., Robbins, J., Habita, C., Pharmacodynamics of weekly intravenous methylene-tetrahydrofolate/5-fluorouracil on formic acid, RBC folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with metastatic colon cancer.
    Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res. 2005.

  54. Reid, T., Spears, C.P., Quadro, R., Subramanian, L., Pawl, L., Jankovic, S., Jelic., N., Milinic, L., Muzikravic, L., Habita, C. A Simon 2 stage study of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolic acid with 5-fluorouracil as first line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer.
    Proc. Amer. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 23: 293s (Abstract 3692), 2005.

  55. Reid, T., Spears, C.P., Quadro, R., Subramanian, L., Pawl, L., Jankovic, S., Jelic., N., Milinic, L., Muzikravic, L., Robbins, J. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolic Acid with 5-fluorouracil as first line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer: Phase II study results.
    Proc. Amer. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 24: 170s (Abstract 3699), 2006.

  56. Reid, T., Spears, C.P., Subramanian, M., Pawl, L., Jankovic, G., Jelic, S., Milinic, N., Muzikravic., Stewart, J., Robbins, J.M. Response to second line treatment following 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate acid (CoFactor) with 5-fluorouracil as first line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer.
    Proc. 8th World Congress on Colon Cancer, Barcelona, Spain, 2006.

  57. Spears, C.P., Yan, J.J., and Bicknell-Johnson, M. Modulo Fibonacci Model of Phyllotaxis.
    Am. Soc. Cell Biol. 46th Ann Meeting, San Diego, p.62, 529 (B492), 2006.

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